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Data Monitoring Committee/Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DMC/DSMB)

An independent group of experts that reviews study data to make sure that patient safety is protected.

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Data Monitoring Committees (DMCs) are also called Data and Safety Monitoring Committees (DSMC) or Data and Safety Monitoring Boards (DSMB).
Studies that are randomized controlled trials, higher risk, or enrolling vulnerable populations (eg. children) usually include DMCs to review the data at specific timepoints, especially for adverse events that can affect participant safety.
The DMC reviews unblinded data on a regular schedule and as needed until the end of the study and advises on next steps in the event of adverse event(s).
The DMC also looks at whether a study should be stopped early (for example, for safety reasons or if there is no benefit to the study treatment)